History of water pipes
For many centuries, lead was the favoured material for water pipes, because its malleability made it practical to work into the desired shape. (Such use was so common that the word "plumbing" derives from plumbum, the Latin word for lead.) This was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirths and high rates of infant mortality. Lead water pipes were still widely used in the early 20th century, and remain in many households. In addition, lead-tin alloy solder was commonly used to join copper pipes, but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead, in order to eliminate lead hazards.
Despite the Romans' common use of lead pipes, their aqueducts rarely poisoned people. Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself. What often causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning, particularly amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water.2 This was an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink, for example as a preservative in wine.3 Roman lead pipe inscriptions provided information on the owner to prevent water theft.
Plumbing - basic facts
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Heating and cooling, waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing however plumbing's not limited to these applications. Plumbing utilizes pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids. Trades that work with plumbing such as boilermakers, plumbers, and pipefitters are referred to the plumbing trade. In the Developed world plumbing infrastructure is critical for public health and sanitation.
The word derives from the Latin plumbum for lead, as the first effective pipes used in Roman era were lead pipes
rental of special equipment needed to clean the manhole
Effective cleaning manhole is carried out in several stages. First plumber introduces chemicals for sanitation, which gradually move into the sewer with the help of the equipment used by him until reach wells. Sometimes achieving an effective cleaning manhole may be made only by using special devices that are equipped plumbers or loaned from other companies. Their use makes it made cleaning is very accurate, and the selection of specific devices depends on the chosen method of cleaning drains. Before and after completing all the works will be carried their valuation and on this basis, invoiced at the hands of the customer.